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Journal ArticleDOI

Metabolic reprogramming of cancer-associated fibroblasts by IDH3α downregulation.

03 Mar 2015-Cell Reports (Cell Rep)-Vol. 10, Iss: 8, pp 1335-1348

TL;DR: It is reported that TGF-β1- or PDGF-induced CAFs switch from oxidative phosphorylation to aerobic glycolysis, and downregulation of isocitrate dehydrogenase 3α (IDH3α) is identified as a marker for this switch.

AbstractCancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) provide critical metabolites for tumor growth and undergo metabolic reprogramming to support glycolysis. However, the molecular mechanisms responsible for this change remain unclear. Here, we report that TGF-β1- or PDGF-induced CAFs switch from oxidative phosphorylation to aerobic glycolysis. We identify downregulation of isocitrate dehydrogenase 3α (IDH3α) as a marker for this switch. Furthermore, miR-424 downregulates IDH3α during CAF formation. Downregulation of IDH3α decreases the effective level of α-ketoglutarate (α-KG) by reducing the ratio of α-KG to fumarate and succinate, resulting in PHD2 inhibition and HIF-1α protein stabilization. The accumulation of HIF-1α, in turn, promotes glycolysis by increasing the uptake of glucose, upregulating expression of glycolytic enzymes under normoxic conditions, and inhibiting oxidative phosphorylation by upregulating NDUFA4L2. CAFs from tumor samples exhibit low levels of IDH3α, and overexpression of IDH3α prevents transformation of fibroblasts into CAFs. Our studies reveal IDH3α to be a critical metabolic switch in CAFs.

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Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) become synthetic machines that produce many different tumour components and have a role in creating extracellular matrix structure and metabolic and immune reprogramming of the tumour microenvironment with an impact on adaptive resistance to chemotherapy.
Abstract: Cancer is associated with fibroblasts at all stages of disease progression. This Review discusses the pleiotropic actions of cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) on tumour cells and postulates that they are likely to be a heterogeneous and plastic population of cells in the tumour microenvironment. Among all cells, fibroblasts could be considered the cockroaches of the human body. They survive severe stress that is usually lethal to all other cells, and they are the only normal cell type that can be live-cultured from post-mortem and decaying tissue. Their resilient adaptation may reside in their intrinsic survival programmes and cellular plasticity. Cancer is associated with fibroblasts at all stages of disease progression, including metastasis, and they are a considerable component of the general host response to tissue damage caused by cancer cells. Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) become synthetic machines that produce many different tumour components. CAFs have a role in creating extracellular matrix (ECM) structure and metabolic and immune reprogramming of the tumour microenvironment with an impact on adaptive resistance to chemotherapy. The pleiotropic actions of CAFs on tumour cells are probably reflective of them being a heterogeneous and plastic population with context-dependent influence on cancer.

1,737 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: How cancer cells reprogramme their metabolism and that of other cells within the tumour microenvironment in order to survive and propagate, thus driving disease progression is discussed; in particular, potential metabolic vulnerabilities that might be targeted therapeutically are highlighted.
Abstract: Awareness that the metabolic phenotype of cells within tumours is heterogeneous - and distinct from that of their normal counterparts - is growing. In general, tumour cells metabolize glucose, lactate, pyruvate, hydroxybutyrate, acetate, glutamine, and fatty acids at much higher rates than their nontumour equivalents; however, the metabolic ecology of tumours is complex because they contain multiple metabolic compartments, which are linked by the transfer of these catabolites. This metabolic variability and flexibility enables tumour cells to generate ATP as an energy source, while maintaining the reduction-oxidation (redox) balance and committing resources to biosynthesis - processes that are essential for cell survival, growth, and proliferation. Importantly, experimental evidence indicates that metabolic coupling between cell populations with different, complementary metabolic profiles can induce cancer progression. Thus, targeting the metabolic differences between tumour and normal cells holds promise as a novel anticancer strategy. In this Review, we discuss how cancer cells reprogramme their metabolism and that of other cells within the tumour microenvironment in order to survive and propagate, thus driving disease progression; in particular, we highlight potential metabolic vulnerabilities that might be targeted therapeutically.

733 citations



Journal ArticleDOI
24 Jan 2018
TL;DR: The most relevant findings describing the influence of hypoxia and the contribution of HIF activation on the major components of the tumour microenvironment are reviewed, and their role in cancer development and progression is summarised.
Abstract: Cancer progression often benefits from the selective conditions present in the tumour microenvironment, such as the presence of cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs), deregulated ECM deposition, expanded vascularisation and repression of the immune response. Generation of a hypoxic environment and activation of its main effector, hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1), are common features of advanced cancers. In addition to the impact on tumour cell biology, the influence that hypoxia exerts on the surrounding cells represents a critical step in the tumorigenic process. Hypoxia indeed enables a number of events in the tumour microenvironment that lead to the expansion of aggressive clones from heterogeneous tumour cells and promote a lethal phenotype. In this article, we review the most relevant findings describing the influence of hypoxia and the contribution of HIF activation on the major components of the tumour microenvironment, and we summarise their role in cancer development and progression.

399 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The focus of this review is on the remodeling of the tumor microenvironment that leads to pathophysiologic interactions that are influenced and shaped by metabolism.
Abstract: Tumors are dynamic pseudoorgans that contain numerous cell types interacting to create a unique physiology. Within this network, the malignant cells encounter many challenges and rewire their metabolic properties accordingly. Such changes can be experienced and executed autonomously or through interaction with other cells in the tumor. The focus of this review is on the remodeling of the tumor microenvironment that leads to pathophysiologic interactions that are influenced and shaped by metabolism. They include symbiotic nutrient sharing, nutrient competition, and the role of metabolites as signaling molecules. Examples of such processes abound in normal organismal physiology, and such heterocellular metabolic interactions are repurposed to support tumor metabolism and growth. The importance and ubiquity of these processes are just beginning to be realized, and insights into their role in tumor development and progression are being used to design new drug targets and cancer therapies.

353 citations


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"Metabolic reprogramming of cancer-a..." refers background in this paper

  • ...The development and progression of tumors are controlled not only by tumor cells but also by their surrounding stromal cells (Carmeliet and Jain, 2000; Rønnov-Jessen et al., 1996; Tlsty, 2001)....

    [...]


Journal ArticleDOI
06 May 2005-Cell
TL;DR: Using a coimplantation tumor xenograft model, it is demonstrated that carcinoma-associated fibroblasts extracted from human breast carcinomas promote the growth of admixed breast carcinoma cells significantly more than do normal mammaries derived from the same patients.
Abstract: Fibroblasts often constitute the majority of the stromal cells within a breast carcinoma, yet the functional contributions of these cells to tumorigenesis are poorly understood. Using a coimplantation tumor xenograft model, we demonstrate that carcinoma-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) extracted from human breast carcinomas promote the growth of admixed breast carcinoma cells significantly more than do normal mammary fibroblasts derived from the same patients. The CAFs, which exhibit the traits of myofibroblasts, play a central role in promoting the growth of tumor cells through their ability to secrete stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF-1); CAFs promote angiogenesis by recruiting endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) into carcinomas, an effect mediated in part by SDF-1. CAF-secreted SDF-1 also stimulates tumor growth directly, acting through the cognate receptor, CXCR4, which is expressed by carcinoma cells. Our findings indicate that fibroblasts within invasive breast carcinomas contribute to tumor promotion in large part through the secretion of SDF-1.

3,167 citations


"Metabolic reprogramming of cancer-a..." refers background in this paper

  • ..., 1999), progression (Dimanche-Boitrel et al., 1994; Orimo et al., 2005), and metastasis (Grum-Schwensen et al....

    [...]

  • ...Through specific communications with cancer cells, CAFs directly promote tumor initiation (Bhowmick et al., 2004; Olumi et al., 1999), progression (Dimanche-Boitrel et al., 1994; Orimo et al., 2005), and metastasis (Grum-Schwensen et al., 2005; Olaso et al., 1997)....

    [...]


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: In recent years, the basement membrane (BM)--a specialized form of extracellular matrix (ECM)--has been recognized as an important regulator of cell behaviour, rather than just a structural feature of tissues. The BM mediates tissue compartmentalization and sends signals to epithelial cells about the external microenvironment. The BM is also an important structural and functional component of blood vessels, constituting an extracellular microenvironment sensor for endothelial cells and pericytes. Vascular BM components have recently been found to be involved in the regulation of tumour angiogenesis, making them attractive candidate targets for potential cancer therapies.

1,460 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: The present study demonstrates that fibroblasts associated with carcinomas stimulate tumor progression of initiated nontumorigenic epithelial cells both in an in vivo tissue recombination system and in an in vitro coculture system. Human prostatic carcinoma-associated fibroblasts grown with initiated human prostatic epithelial cells dramatically stimulated growth and altered histology of the epithelial population. This effect was not detected when normal prostatic fibroblasts were grown with the initiated epithelial cells under the same experimental conditions. In contrast, carcinoma-associated fibroblasts did not affect growth of normal human prostatic epithelial cells under identical conditions. From these data, we conclude that in this human prostate cancer model, carcinoma-associated fibroblasts stimulate progression of tumorigenesis. Thus, carcinoma-associated fibroblasts can direct tumor progression of an initiated prostate epithelial cell.

1,439 citations


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