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Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.JACC.2020.12.060

Mitochondria-Rich Extracellular Vesicles From Autologous Stem Cell-Derived Cardiomyocytes Restore Energetics of Ischemic Myocardium.

02 Mar 2021-Journal of the American College of Cardiology (American College of Cardiology FoundationWashington D.C.)-Vol. 77, Iss: 8, pp 1073-1088
Abstract: Background Mitochondrial dysfunction results in an imbalance between energy supply and demand in a failing heart. An innovative therapy that targets the intracellular bioenergetics directly through mitochondria transfer may be necessary. Objectives The purpose of this study was to establish a preclinical proof-of-concept that extracellular vesicle (EV)-mediated transfer of autologous mitochondria and their related energy source enhance cardiac function through restoration of myocardial bioenergetics. Methods Human-induced pluripotent stem cell–derived cardiomyocytes (iCMs) were employed. iCM-conditioned medium was ultracentrifuged to collect mitochondria-rich EVs (M-EVs). Therapeutic effects of M-EVs were investigated using in vivo murine myocardial infarction (MI) model. Results Electron microscopy revealed healthy-shaped mitochondria inside M-EVs. Confocal microscopy showed that M-EV–derived mitochondria were transferred into the recipient iCMs and fused with their endogenous mitochondrial networks. Treatment with 1.0 × 108/ml M-EVs significantly restored the intracellular adenosine triphosphate production and improved contractile profiles of hypoxia-injured iCMs as early as 3 h after treatment. In contrast, isolated mitochondria that contained 300× more mitochondrial proteins than 1.0 × 108/ml M-EVs showed no effect after 24 h. M-EVs contained mitochondrial biogenesis-related messenger ribonucleic acids, including proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α, which on transfer activated mitochondrial biogenesis in the recipient iCMs at 24 h after treatment. Finally, intramyocardial injection of 1.0 × 108 M-EVs demonstrated significantly improved post-MI cardiac function through restoration of bioenergetics and mitochondrial biogenesis. Conclusions M-EVs facilitated immediate transfer of their mitochondrial and nonmitochondrial cargos, contributing to improved intracellular energetics in vitro. Intramyocardial injection of M-EVs enhanced post-MI cardiac function in vivo. This therapy can be developed as a novel, precision therapeutic for mitochondria-related diseases including heart failure.

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Topics: Mitochondrial biogenesis (60%), Mitochondrion (54%), Extracellular vesicle (53%) ... read more
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14 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/S41565-021-00931-2
Abstract: Extracellular-vesicle-based cell-to-cell communication is conserved across all kingdoms of life. There is compelling evidence that extracellular vesicles are involved in major (patho)physiological processes, including cellular homoeostasis, infection propagation, cancer development and cardiovascular diseases. Various studies suggest that extracellular vesicles have several advantages over conventional synthetic carriers, opening new frontiers for modern drug delivery. Despite extensive research, clinical translation of extracellular-vesicle-based therapies remains challenging. Here, we discuss the uniqueness of extracellular vesicles along with critical design and development steps required to utilize their full potential as drug carriers, including loading methods, in-depth characterization and large-scale manufacturing. We compare the prospects of extracellular vesicles with those of the well established liposomes and provide guidelines to direct the process of developing vesicle-based drug delivery systems. In this Review the authors discuss the biological role of extracellular vesicles and how they can be applied as drug carriers, focusing on the current state of their manufacturing and existing challenges.

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Topics: Drug delivery (50%)

20 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.ADDR.2021.05.011
Abstract: During the past decades, extracellular vesicles (EVs) have emerged as an attractive drug delivery system. Here, we assess their pre-clinical applications, in the form of a systematic review. For each study published in the past decade, disease models, animal species, EV donor cell types, active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs), EV surface modifications, API loading methods, EV size and charge, estimation of EV purity, presence of biodistribution studies and administration routes were quantitatively analyzed in a defined and reproducible way. We have interpreted the trends we observe over the past decade, to define the niches where to apply EVs for drug delivery in the future and to provide a basis for regulatory guidelines.

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Topics: Drug delivery (51%)

15 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.COPH.2021.07.018
Ya Hou1, Xiaobo Wang1, Yi Zhang1, Shaohui Wang1  +1 moreInstitutions (1)
Abstract: The highlands evoke both fascination and awe. Regardless of the reason to live in the highlands, symptoms related to altitude sickness are unbearable because of low atmospheric pressure, low oxygen concentration, strong ultraviolet radiation, cold, and psychological factors. Food and herbal medicines and/or health-care foods have protected highland dwellers owing to their multisystem regulation. These versatile products combine health-care properties with medical values by enhancing immunity, relieving physical fatigue, improving sleep, and augmenting hypoxia tolerance, with rare side effects. We therefore aimed to provide a more comprehensive analysis of these nutraceuticals, which can be used to prevent and treat symptoms of altitude hypoxia in the Chinese market. Finally, we dissect a new perspective for their promotion and development from molecular aspects.

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Topics: Altitude sickness (51%), Altitude Hypoxia (51%)

2 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3389/FCELL.2021.734720
Abstract: Extracellular vesicles (EVs) hold great promise as therapeutic modalities due to their endogenous characteristics, however, further bioengineering refinement is required to address clinical and commercial limitations. Clinical applications of EV-based therapeutics are being trialed in immunomodulation, tissue regeneration and recovery, and as delivery vectors for combination therapies. Native/biological EVs possess diverse endogenous properties that offer stability and facilitate crossing of biological barriers for delivery of molecular cargo to cells, acting as a form of intercellular communication to regulate function and phenotype. Moreover, EVs are important components of paracrine signaling in stem/progenitor cell-based therapies, are employed as standalone therapies, and can be used as a drug delivery system. Despite remarkable utility of native/biological EVs, they can be improved using bio/engineering approaches to further therapeutic potential. EVs can be engineered to harbor specific pharmaceutical content, enhance their stability, and modify surface epitopes for improved tropism and targeting to cells and tissues in vivo. Limitations currently challenging the full realization of their therapeutic utility include scalability and standardization of generation, molecular characterization for design and regulation, therapeutic potency assessment, and targeted delivery. The fields' utilization of advanced technologies (imaging, quantitative analyses, multi-omics, labeling/live-cell reporters), and utility of biocompatible natural sources for producing EVs (plants, bacteria, milk) will play an important role in overcoming these limitations. Advancements in EV engineering methodologies and design will facilitate the development of EV-based therapeutics, revolutionizing the current pharmaceutical landscape.

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Topics: Extracellular vesicle (54%)

2 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.JACCAO.2021.05.006
Connor O'Brien1, Mehmet Ozgun Ozen2, Gentaro Ikeda2, Evgeniya Vaskova2  +16 moreInstitutions (4)
01 Sep 2021-
Abstract: Background Anthracycline-induced cardiomyopathy (AIC) is a significant source of morbidity and mortality in cancer survivors. The role of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in treating AIC was ...

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Topics: Mesenchymal stem cell (57%), Anthracycline (54%), Cardiomyopathy (53%) ... read more

2 Citations


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39 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.CELL.2007.11.019
Kazutoshi Takahashi1, Koji Tanabe1, Mari Ohnuki1, Megumi Narita1  +3 moreInstitutions (1)
30 Nov 2007-Cell
Abstract: SUMMARY Successful reprogramming of differentiated human somatic cells into a pluripotent state would allow creation of patient- and disease-specific stem cells. We previously reported generation of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, capable of germline transmission, from mouse somatic cells by transduction of four defined transcription factors. Here, we demonstrate the generationofiPS cells from adult human dermal fibroblasts with the same four factors: Oct3/4, Sox2, Klf4, and c-Myc. Human iPS cells were similar to human embryonic stem (ES) cells in morphology, proliferation, surface antigens, gene expression, epigenetic status of pluripotent cell-specific genes, and telomerase activity. Furthermore, these cells could differentiate into cell types of the three germ layers in vitro and in teratomas. These findings demonstrate that iPS cells can be generated from adult human fibroblasts.

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Topics: Induced pluripotent stem cell (72%), Embryonic stem cell (71%), Stem cell (70%) ... read more

16,624 Citations


Open accessBook
01 Feb 1996-

13,165 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.JACC.2013.05.019
Clyde W. Yancy, Mariell Jessup, Biykem Bozkurt, Javed Butler  +20 moreInstitutions (4)
Abstract: Jeffrey L. Anderson, MD, FACC, FAHA, Chair; Alice K. Jacobs, MD, FACC, FAHA, Immediate Past Chair[‡‡][1]; Jonathan L. Halperin, MD, FACC, FAHA, Chair-Elect; Nancy M. Albert, PhD, CCNS, CCRN, FAHA; Biykem Bozkurt, MD, PhD, FACC, FAHA; Ralph G. Brindis, MD, MPH, MACC; Mark A. Creager, MD, FACC,

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10,622 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1056/NEJM199909023411001
Bertram Pitt1, Faiez Zannad, Willem J. Remme, Robert J. Cody  +4 moreInstitutions (1)
Abstract: Background and Methods Aldosterone is important in the pathophysiology of heart failure. In a double-blind study, we enrolled 1663 patients who had severe heart failure and a left ventricular ejection fraction of no more than 35 percent and who were being treated with an angiotensin-converting–enzyme inhibitor, a loop diuretic, and in most cases digoxin. A total of 822 patients were randomly assigned to receive 25 mg of spironolactone daily, and 841 to receive placebo. The primary end point was death from all causes. Results The trial was discontinued early, after a mean follow-up period of 24 months, because an interim analysis determined that spironolactone was efficacious. There were 386 deaths in the placebo group (46 percent) and 284 in the spironolactone group (35 percent; relative risk of death, 0.70; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.60 to 0.82; P<0.001). This 30 percent reduction in the risk of death among patients in the spironolactone group was attributed to a lower risk of both death from prog...

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Topics: Eplerenone (56%), Spironolactone (56%), Finerenone (56%) ... read more

7,382 Citations