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Journal ArticleDOI

Fabrication and analysis of deep submicron strained-Si n-MOSFET's

01 Jul 2000-IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices (IEEE)-Vol. 47, Iss: 7, pp 1406-1415

AbstractDeep submicron strained-Si n-MOSFETs were fabricated on strained Si/relaxed Si/sub 0.8/Ge/sub 0.2/ heterostructures. Epitaxial layer structures were designed to yield well-matched channel doping profiles after processing, allowing comparison of strained and unstrained Si surface channel devices. In spite of the high substrate doping and high vertical fields, the MOSFET mobility of the strained-Si devices is enhanced by 75% compared to that of the unstrained-Si control devices and the state-of-the-art universal MOSFET mobility. Although the strained and unstrained-Si MOSFETs exhibit very similar short-channel effects, the intrinsic transconductance of the strained Si devices is enhanced by roughly 60% for the entire channel length range investigated (1 to 0.1 /spl mu/m) when self-heating is reduced by an ac measurement technique. Comparison of the measured transconductance to hydrodynamic device simulations indicates that in addition to the increased low-field mobility, improved high-field transport in strained Si is necessary to explain the observed performance improvement. Reduced carrier-phonon scattering for electrons with average energies less than a few hundred meV accounts for the enhanced high-field electron transport in strained Si. Since strained Si provides device performance enhancements through changes in material properties rather than changes in device geometry and doping, strained Si is a promising candidate for improving the performance of Si CMOS technology without compromising the control of short channel effects.

Topics: Electron mobility (56%), Short-channel effect (56%), Transconductance (54%), MOSFET (52%)

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Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: This article reviews the history and current progress in high-mobility strained Si, SiGe, and Ge channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs). We start by providing a chronological overview of important milestones and discoveries that have allowed heterostructures grown on Si substrates to transition from purely academic research in the 1980’s and 1990’s to the commercial development that is taking place today. We next provide a topical review of the various types of strain-engineered MOSFETs that can be integrated onto relaxed Si1−xGex, including surface-channel strained Si n- and p-MOSFETs, as well as double-heterostructure MOSFETs which combine a strained Si surface channel with a Ge-rich buried channel. In all cases, we will focus on the connections between layer structure, band structure, and MOS mobility characteristics. Although the surface and starting substrate are composed of pure Si, the use of strained Si still creates new challenges, and we shall also review the litera...

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References
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Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Using nonlocal empirical pseudopotentials, we compute the band structure and shear deformation potentials of strained Si, Ge, and SiGe alloys. Fitting the theoretical results to experimental data on the phonon‐limited carrier mobilities in bulk Si and Ge, the dilatation deformation potential Ξd is found to be 1.1 eV for the Si Δ minima, −4.4 eV for the Ge L minima, corresponding to a value for the valence band dilatation deformation potential a of approximately 2 eV for both Si and Ge. The optical deformation potential d0 is found to be 41.45 and 41.75 eV for Si and Ge, respectively. Carrier mobilities in strained Si and Ge are then evaluated. The results show a large enhancement of the hole mobility for both tensile and compressive strain along the [001] direction, but only a modest enhancement (approximately 60%) of the electron mobility for tensile biaxial strain in Si. Finally, from a fit to carrier mobilities in relaxed SiGe alloys, the effective alloy scattering potential is determined to be about 0...

1,429 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: This paper reports the studies of the inversion layer mobility in n- and p-channel Si MOSFET's with a wide range of substrate impurity concentrations (10/sup 15/ to 10/sup 18/ cm/sup -3/). The validity and limitations of the universal relationship between the inversion layer mobility and the effective normal field (E/sub eff/) are examined. It is found that the universality of both the electron and hole mobilities does hold up to 10/sup 18/ cm/sup -3/. The E/sub eff/ dependences of the universal curves are observed to differ between electrons and holes, particularly at lower temperatures. This result means a different influence of surface roughness scattering on the electron and hole transports. On substrates with higher impurity concentrations, the electron and hole mobilities significantly deviate from the universal curves at lower surface carrier concentrations because of Coulomb scattering by the substrate impurity. Also, the deviation caused by the charged centers at the Si/SiO/sub 2/ interface is observed in the mobility of MOSFET's degraded by Fowler-Nordheim electron injection. >

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Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: The thermal resistivity, Seebeck coefficient, electrical resistivity, and Hall mobility of Ge‐Si alloys have been measured throughout the Ge‐Si alloy system as functions of impurity concentration in the range 2×1018−4×1020cm−3, and of temperature in the range 300°–1300°K. A qualitative interpretation of these properties is given. For power conversion, boron and phosphorus were found to be useful p‐type and n‐type impurities, respectively, because of their high solid solubilities. At 1200°K, the maximum values of the dimensionless figure of merit zT were 0.8 for p‐type Ge0.15‐Si0.85 alloy doped to 2.1×1020cm−3 holes, and 1.0 for n‐type Ge0.15‐Si0.85 alloy doped to 2.7×1020cm−3 electrons. The maximum over‐all efficiency of a stable generator operating between 300°–1200°K, using the best p‐type and n‐type materials was computed to be 10%.

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Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: The phonon‐limited mobility of strained Si metal–oxide–semiconductor field‐effect transistors (MOSFETs) fabricated on a SiGe substrate is investigated through theoretical calculations including two‐dimensional quantization, and compared with the mobility of conventional (unstrained) Si MOSFETs. In order to match both the mobility of unstrained Si MOSFETs and the mobility enhancement in strained Si MOSFETs, it is necessary to increase the coupling of electrons in the two‐dimensional gas with intervalley phonons, compared to the values used in conventional models. The mobility enhancement associated with strain in Si is attributed to the following two factors: the suppression of intervalley phonon scattering due to the strain‐induced band splitting, and the decrease in the occupancy of the fourfold valleys which exhibit a lower mobility due to the stronger interaction with intervalley phonons. While the decrease in the averaged conductivity mass, caused by the decrease in the occupancy of the fourfold valle...

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Abstract: Self heating diminishes the reliability of silicon-on-insulator (SOI) transistors, particularly those that must withstand electrostatic discharge (ESD) pulses. This problem is alleviated by lateral thermal conduction in the silicon device layer, whose thermal conductivity is not known. The present work develops a technique for measuring this property, and provides data for layers in wafers fabricated using bond-and-etch-back (BESOI) technology. The room-temperature thermal conductivity data decrease with decreasing layer thickness, d s , to a value nearly 40 percent less than that of bulk silicon for d s = 0.42 μm, The agreement of the data with the predictions of phonon transport analysis between 20 and 300 K strongly indicates that phonon scattering on layer boundaries is responsible for a large part of the reduction. The reduction is also due in part to concentrations of imperfections larger than those in bulk samples. The data show that the buried oxide in BESOI wafers has a thermal conductivity that is nearly equal to that of bulk fused quartz. The present work will lead to more accurate thermal simulations of SOI transistors and cantilever MEMS structures.

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